Circumcision: Timeline

  
  
  
  
  
  

  • 130s

  • 1440s

  • 1650s

    • 1650: ""To cut off the uppermost skin of the secret parts is directly against the honesty of nature, and an injurious insufferable trick put upon her." ~ Dr John Bulwer Anthropometamorphosis, man transform'd, or the artificial changeling (London 1650), p." - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
  • 1800s

    • 1809: To this end he and Lea took the (then) daring decision not to have their sons Felix and Paul circumcised after their births in 1809 and 1812 respectively, although this led to arguments with Lea's mother. - Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Wikipedia.
  • 1870s

    • 1877: "The soreness which continues for several weeks interrupts the practice, and if it had not previously become too firmly fixed, it may be forgotten and not resumed." ~ Dr John Harvey Kellogg, Plain facts for old and young: embracing the natural history and hygiene of organic life, 1877" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
  • 1890s

  • 1900s

    • 1900: There are several hypotheses to explain why infant circumcision was accepted in the United States about the year 1900. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
  • 1930s

    • 1933: Although it is difficult to determine historical circumcision rates, one estimate of infant circumcision rates in the United States holds that 32% of newborn American boys were being circumcised in 1933. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • September 8, 1933: Paul Murray Fleiss M.D. (born September 8, 1933) is an American pediatrician, breastfeeding advocate, and anti-circumcision activist based in Los Feliz, California. - Paul M. Fleiss, Wikipedia.
  • 1940s

    • 1945: Laumann et al. reported that the prevalence of circumcision among US-born males was approximately 70%, 80%, 85%, and 77% for those born in 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1971 respectively. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1945: In South Korea, circumcision was largely unknown before the establishment of the United States trusteeship in 1945 and the spread of American influence. - History of male circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1945: In South Korea, circumcision was largely unknown before the establishment of the United States trusteeship in 1945. - History of male circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1948: The decline in circumcision in the United Kingdom followed the decision by the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948 not to cover the procedure following an influential article by Douglas Gairdner which claimed that circumcision resulted in the deaths of about 16 children under 5 each year in the United Kingdom. - History of male circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1949: The United Kingdom's newly-formed National Health Service removed infant circumcision from its list of covered services, and circumcision has since been an out-of-pocket cost to parents. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1949: Gairdner's 1949 study[149] reported that an average of 16 children per year out of about 90,000 died following circumcision in the UK. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
  • 1950s

  • 1960s

  • 1970s

    • 1970s: Xu et al. reported that the prevalence of circumcision among US-born males was 91% for males born in the 1970s and 84% for those born in the 1980s. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1970s: The circumcision rate has declined sharply in Australia since the 1970s, leading to an age-graded fall in prevalence, with a 2000-01 survey finding 32% of those aged 16–19 years circumcised, 50% for 20–29 years and 64% for those aged 30–39 years. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1970s: Royal Deluxe II - 1970s car commercial parody that demonstrates the smoothness of the car's ride by having a mohel perform a circumcision in the back seat while the car is driven at forty miles per hour on a bumpy road. - List of Saturday Night Live commercial parodies, Wikipedia.
    • 1973: ""Despite overwhelming evidence from urological surgeons that neoplasm of the penis is a lethal disease that can be prevented by removal of the foreskin, some physicians continue to argue against routine circumcision in a highly emotional and aggressive fashion." - Dr Dagher, Journal of Urology, 1973" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
  • 1980s

    • 1980: "~ Edward Wallerstein, Circumcision: An American Health Fallacy, 1980" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
    • 1980s: Male circumcision was very strongly discouraged in Bulgaria in the 1980s as part of attempts to pressurise the countries muslim minority and although official penalties could be forthcoming there was no actual legislation. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
    • 1981: National Hospital Discharge Survey data from the National Center for Health Statistics demonstrated that the infant circumcision rate remained relatively stable within the 60% range, with a minimum of 60.7% in 1988 and a maximum of 67.8% in 1995. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1982: Medicaid funding for infant circumcision used to be available in all 50 states but, starting with California in 1982, 16 states have eliminated Medicaid coverage of routine (non-therapeutic) circumcision. - Prevalence of circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1983: A survey of circumcision complications by Kaplan in 1983 revealed that the rate of bleeding complications was between 0.1% and 35%. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1983: The Holy Prepuce of Calcata is worthy of special mention, as the reliquary containing the Holy Foreskin was paraded through the streets of this Italian village as recently as 1983 on the Feast of the Circumcision, which was formerly marked by the Roman Catholic Church around the world on January 1 each year. - Holy Prepuce, Wikipedia.
    • 1984: Although 19th century Reform leaders described it as "barbaric", the practice of circumcision "remained a central rite"[38] and the Union for Reform Judaism has, since 1984, trained and certified over 300 practicing mohels under its "Berit Mila Program". - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1987: A 1987 study found that the most prominent reasons US parents choose circumcision were "concerns about the attitudes of peers and their sons' self concept in the future," rather than medical concerns. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1987: One study looking at 354,297 births in Washington State from 1987-1996 found that immediate post-birth complications occurred at a rate of 0.2% in the circumcised babies and at a rate of 0.01% in the uncircumcised babies. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1988: However, a later study speculated that an increased recognition of the potential benefits of neonatal circumcision may have been responsible for the observed increase in the US rate between 1988 and 2000. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1989: Endorsement of the petition also includes the 1989 Universal Declaration on Circumcision, Excision, and Incision which holds that medically unnecessary surgical circumcisions, excisions and incisions on male and female genitals constitute an act of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment within the terms of Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. - Ashley Montagu Resolution, Wikipedia.
  • 1990s

    • 1994: In Canada, Ontario health services delisted circumcision in 1994. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1996: Denniston reported in 1996 that the neonatal circumcision rate in Finland is zero and that the rate of later circumcision is 1 in 16,667. - Prevalence of circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1997: One of the supporting studies, Taddio 1997, found a correlation between circumcision and intensity of pain response during vaccination months later. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1997: To date (1997), there have been no published studies showing the ability of a circumciser to predict the later appearance of the penis."[143] - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1997: Koren and his group documented in 1997, for the first time, that neonates remember the pain of circumcision 6 months later, as evidenced by enhanced response to vaccination. - Gideon Koren, Wikipedia.
    • 1998: Stang, 1998, found 45% of physicians responding to a survey who circumcise used anaesthesia – most commonly a dorsal penile nerve block – for infant circumcisions. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1998: The passage of the Human Rights Act 1998 has led to some speculation that the lawfulness of the circumcision of male children is unclear. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
    • 1998: Moses et al.' (1998) state, however, that "scientific evidence is lacking" for psychological and emotional harm, citing a longitudinal study which did not find a difference in developmental and behavioural indices. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1998: Howard et al. (1998) surveyed US medical doctor residency programs and directors, and found that 26% of the programs that taught the circumcision procedure "failed to provide instruction in anesthesia/analgesia for the procedure" and recommended that "residency training in neonatal circumcision should include instruction in pain relief techniques". - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: A 1999 study of 48 boys who had complications from traditional male circumcision in Nigeria found that haemorrhage occurred in 52% of the boys, infection in 21% and one child had his penis amputated. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated that studies suggest that neonatal circumcision confers some protection from penile cancer, but circumcision at a later age does not seem to confer the same level of protection. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated "A survey of adult males using self-report suggests more varied sexual practice and less sexual dysfunction in circumcised adult men. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: Goldman (1999) discussed the possible trauma of circumcision on children and parents, anxieties over the circumcised state, a tendency to repeat the trauma, and suggested a need on the part of circumcised doctors to find medical justifications for the procedure. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: According to the American Academy of Pediatrics' 1999 Circumcision Policy Statement, “There is considerable evidence that newborns who are circumcised without analgesia experience pain and physiologic stress.”[65] It therefore recommended using pain relief for circumcision. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: Glass, 1999, stated that Jewish ritual circumcision is so quick that "most mohelim do not routinely use any anaesthesia as they feel there is probably no need in the neonate." Glass continued, "However, there is no Talmudic objection and should the parents wish for local anaesthetic cream to be applied there is no reason why this cannot be done." Glass also stated that for older children and adults, a penile block is used. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated: "Circumcision has been suggested as an effective method of maintaining penile hygiene since the time of the Egyptian dynasties, but there is little evidence to affirm the association between circumcision status and optimal penile hygiene."[65] - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: ""Analgesia is safe and effective in reducing the procedural pain associated with circumcision; therefore, if a decision for circumcision is made, procedural analgesia should be provided." - Dr Lannon, et al, American Academy of Pediatrics: Circumcision Policy Statement, Pediatrics, 1999" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
    • 1999: In a 1996 press release, NOCIRC stated that "We expect this professional organization[AAP] that is concerned with the health of infants and children to reveal the harm of genital cutting and to protect every child's birthright to keep his or her sex organs intact."[5] The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) said the medical benefits of circumcision are not sufficient to recommend routine neonatal circumcision, but that it should be the decision of informed parents. - National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: ""[The] Task Force did recommend making all parents aware of the potential benefits and risks of circumcision and leaving it to the family to decide whether circumcision is in the best interests of their child." - Dr Lannon, et al, 1999 AAP Task Force on Circumcision, Pediatrics, 2000" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
    • 1999: The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) stated that studies suggest that neonatal circumcision confers some protection from penile cancer, but circumcision at a later age does not seem to confer the same level of protection. - Medical analysis of circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: The American Academy of Pediatrics (1999) found both potential benefits and risks in infant circumcision, however, there was insufficient data to recommend routine neonatal circumcision. - Medical analysis of circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: It supported the general principles of the 1999 Circumcision Policy Statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics[8] - Medical analysis of circumcision, Wikipedia.
    • 1999: In Israel, an attempt in 1999 to have circumcision ruled illegal was rejected by the Israeli Supreme Court. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
  • 2000s


    • 2000

      • 2000: A literature review by Gerharz and Haarmann (2000) reached a similar conclusion. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2000: "Neither of these anecdotal beliefs meets the stated criterion of being evidence-based." - Dr Schoen, et al, Pediatrics, 2000" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
      • 2000: ""[The] Task Force did recommend making all parents aware of the potential benefits and risks of circumcision and leaving it to the family to decide whether circumcision is in the best interests of their child." - Dr Lannon, et al, 1999 AAP Task Force on Circumcision, Pediatrics, 2000" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
      • 2000: Peet Pienaar (born 29 August 1971 near Potchefstroom, South Africa) is a South African performance artist, most famous for having himself videotaped while undergoing circumcision in 2000. - Peet Pienaar, Wikipedia.
      • 2000: Somerville (2000) argues that the nature of the medical benefits cited as a justification for infant circumcision are such that the potential medical problems can be avoided or, if they occur, treated in far less invasive ways than circumcision. - Ethics of circumcision, Wikipedia.

    • 2001

      • January, 2001: ""Circumcised males do not benefit from their circumcision but instead only suffer pain and permanent disfigurement of their genitalia." ~ Thomas Bartman, MD, PHD Division of Neonatology University of California, San Francisco Pediatrics, Evanston, Jan 2001, Vol." - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
      • 2001: Sweden passed a law allowing only persons certified by the National Board of Health to circumcise infants, requiring a medical doctor or an anesthesia nurse to accompany the circumciser and for anaesthetic to be applied beforehand. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2001: The Swedish government passed a law requiring all boys undergoing a bris to be given anaesthetic administered by a medical professional. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2001: Jews and Muslims in Sweden objected to the law,[100] and in 2001, the World Jewish Congress stated that it was "the first legal restriction on Jewish religious practice in Europe since the Nazi era."[101] In 2005, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare reviewed the law and recommended that it be maintained. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2001: ""If I was to cut off any other part of a baby for no good cause and without an anaesthetic, I'd be struck off the medical register and the parents would most likely lose custody of the child." ~ Christopher Green, paediatrician, Camperdown Children's Hospital, Sydney, 2001" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
      • 2001: Eastern Cape Province passed a law (Application of Health Standards in Traditional Circumcision Act 2001) to regulate traditional circumcision, which causes the death or mutilation of many youths by traditional surgeons each year[34][35]. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
      • November 17, 2001: ""If I was a newborn baby tonight and I could speak and I was asked about circumcision, I would say, "Can you hold off a bit until I can make up my own mind."" ~ Roger McClay, New Zealand Commissioner for Children, The first cut, NZ Listener, Nov 17, 2001" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.

    • 2002

      • 2002: Boyle et al. (2002) state that circumcision may result in psychological harm, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), citing a study reporting high rates of PTSD among Filipino boys after either ritual or medical circumcision. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2002: There are anecdotal reports that penile sensation and sexual satisfaction are decreased for circumcised males." They continued, "Masters and Johnson noted no difference in exteroceptive and light tactile discrimination on the ventral or dorsal surfaces of the glans penis between circumcised and uncircumcised men."[65] Conversely a 2002 review by Boyle et al. stated that "the genitally intact male has thousands of fine touch receptors and other highly erogenous nerve endings—many of which are lost to circumcision, with an inevitable reduction in sexual sensation experienced by circumcised male... - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • August, 2002: ""Circumcising a baby boy to protect against STDs is like selling your car to make sure he's never injured in a crash." ~ Dr Schwanz, Men's Health, July/August 2002" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.

    • 2003

      • 2003: "For this reason, nontherapeutic circumcision of infant boys is a suitable matter for parental discretion." - Drs Benatar and Benatar, American Journal of Bioethics, 2003" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.
      • 2003: Williams (2003) argued that human attitudes toward the pain that animals (including humans) experience may not be based on speciesism, developing an analogy between attitudes toward the pain pigs endure while having their tails docked, and "our culture's indifference to the pain that male human infants experience while being circumcised."[93] - Circumcision, Wikipedia.

    • 2004


    • 2005

      • 2005: A report by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality placed the 2005 national circumcision rate at 56%. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2005: Hirji et al. (2005) state that "Reports of [...] psychological trauma are not borne out in studies but remain as an anecdotal cause for concern."[99] - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • July, 2005: Researchers halt a study in Africa after results indicate that circumcised men are 70% less likely to contract AIDS. - July 2005, Wikipedia.
      • November, 2005: "Male circumcision may provide an important way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa." - Dr Auvert, et al, PLoS Medicine, November 2005" - Circumcision, Wikiquote.

    • 2006

      • 2006: A 2006 follow-up study revealed that the percentage of programs that taught circumcision and also taught administration of topical or local anesthetic had increased to 97%. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2006: A Finnish court found that a parent's actions in having her 4-year-old son circumcised was illegal. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2006: The British Medical Association (2006) states that "it is now widely accepted, including by the BMA, that this surgical procedure has medical and psychological risks."[88] Milos and Macris (1992) argue that circumcision encodes the perinatal brain with violence and negatively affects infant-maternal bonding and trust. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • October, 2006: A judge in Chicago granted an injunction blocking the circumcision of a 9 year old boy. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.

    • 2007

      • January, 2007: The American Academy of Family Physicians (January 2007) acknowledges the controversy surrounding circumcision and recommends that physicians discuss the potential harms and benefits of circumcision with all parents or legal guardians considering circumcision for newborn boys. - Medical analysis of circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2007: In a 2007 study, Sorrells et al., using monofilament touch-test mapping, found that the foreskin contains the most sensitive parts of the penis, noting that these parts are lost to circumcision. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2007: By 2007, the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales, Western Australia and Tasmania had stopped the practice of non-therapeutic male circumcision in all public hospitals. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2007: In early 2007 it was announced that rural aidpost orderlies in the East Sepik Province of Papua New Guinea are to undergo training in the circumcision of men and boys of all ages with a view to introducing the procedure as a means of prophylaxis against HIV/AIDS, which is becoming a significant problem in the country. - Religious male circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2007: Cosmetic circumcision for newborn males is currently banned in all Australian public hospitals, South Australia being the last state to adopt the ban in 2007. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
      • September, 2007: A Frankfurt am Main appeals court found that the circumcision of an 11 year old boy without his approval was an unlawful personal injury. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
      • November, 2007: The Oregon Supreme Court heard arguments from a divorced Oregon couple over the circumcision of their son. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.

    • 2008

      • January 25, 2008: The Court returned the case to the trial court with instructions to determine whether the child agrees or objects to the proposed circumcision. - Circumcision and law, Wikipedia.
      • 2008: The Finnish government was reported to be considering a new law to legalize ritual circumcision if the practitioner is a doctor, "according to the parents' wishes, and with the child's consent", as reported. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2008: However, no punishment was assigned by the court, and in 2008 the Finnish Supreme Court ruled that the mother's actions did not constitute a criminal offense and that circumcision of a child for religious reasons, when performed properly, is not a crime. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2008: They also found that "the glans of the circumcised penis is less sensitive to fine-touch than the glans of the uncircumcised penis."[127] In a 2008 study, Krieger et al. stated that "Adult male circumcision was not associated with sexual dysfunction. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • September, 2008: The most recent symposium was the Tenth International Symposium on Circumcision and Human Rights, which was held in September 2008 at Keele University, England. - National Organization of Circumcision Information Resource Centers, Wikipedia.

    • 2009

      • 2009: The American Cancer Society (2009) stated, "Most experts agree that circumcision should not be recommended solely as a way to prevent penile cancer."[192] - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • 2009: Two studies have shown that circumcised men report, or were found to have, a higher prevalence of genital warts than uncircumcised men;[173][174] however, a 2009 meta-analysis of multiple studies found a non-significant association between genital warts and the presence of a foreskin. - Circumcision, Wikipedia.
      • July 16, 2009: A Ugandan study finds circumcising men who already have HIV does not protect their female partners from the virus. - July 2009, Wikipedia.






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